References

A-prefixing

After Perfect

Alls-construction

Amalgam clefts

Be done my homework (Aspectual transitive be-perfect)

Double Comparatives

Double IS

Drama SO

Expletive they

Future Pluperfect

Inversion in Embedded Questions

Liketa

Long-distance Reflexives

Multiple Modals

Needs Washed

Negative Concord

Negative Inversion

Personal Datives

Positive anymore

Punctual whenever

So don't I (So AUXn't NP/DP (SAND))

Split Subjects

Stressed BIN

Taller than what Bill is

Verbal Agreement

Verbal rather

A-prefixing

He just kep' a-beggin' and a-cryin' and a-wantin' to go out.

(Wolfram and Christian 1976)

Allen, Harold B. 1973–1975. The Linguistic Atlas of the Upper Midwest. University of Minnesota Press.

Atwood, E. Bagby. 1953. A Survey of Verb Forms in the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Christian, Donna, Walt Wolfram, and Nanjo Dube. 1988. Variation and Change in Geographically Isolated Communities: Appalachian English and Ozark English. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: American Dialect Society.

Feagin, Crawford. 1979. Variation and Change in Alabama English: A Sociolinguistic Study of the White Community. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Hackenberg, Robert G. 1973. Appalachian English: A Sociolinguistic Study. Doctoral Dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

Krapp, George Philip. 1925. The English Language in America. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company.

Stewart, William A. 1972. Language and communication problems in southern Appalachia. In David L. Shores [ed.] Contemporary English: Change and Variation, 107–122. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Montgomery, Michael B. 2009. Historical and comparative perspectives on a-prefixing in the English of Appalachia. American Speech 84:5–26.

Wentworth, Harold. 1944. American Dialect Dictionary. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.

Wolfram, Walt. 1976. Toward a description of a-prefixing in Appalachian English. American Speech 51:45–56.

Wolfram, Walt. 1988. Reconsidering the semantics of a-prefixing. American Speech 63:247–254.

Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1976. Appalachian Speech. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Wright, Joseph. 1898–1905. The English Dialect Dictionary: Being the complete vocabulary of all dialect words still in use, or known to have been in use during the last two hundred years. London: Henry Frowde.

After Perfect

They were after breaking into the liquor store.

('They'd broken into the liquor store.')

(Bismark 2008)

Bismark, Christina. 2006. Two Hundred Years After Going West: The Be After V-ing Construction in the Placentia Bay Area of Newfoundland. Masters thesis, Potsdam University, Potsdam, Germany.

Bismark, Christina. 2008. 'There's after being changes': be after V-ing in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland. Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik (AAA) 33 (1), 95–118. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.

Alls-construction

Alls I want to do is have fun!

(Putnam and van Koppen 2011)

Putnam, Michael T. and van Koppen, Marjo. 2009. C-agreement or something close to it: the alls-construction. In Artemis Alexiadou, Jorge Hankamer, Thomas McFadden, Justin Nuger and Florian Schäfer [eds.] Advances in Comparative Germanic Syntax, 41–58. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Putnam, Michael T. and van Koppen, Marjo. 2011. All there is to know about the alls-construction. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 14, 81–109.

Amalgam clefts

He'll try to kill is what he'll do.

(Satan, South Park)

Akmajian, Adrian. 1979. Aspects of the grammar of focus in English. New York: Garland.

Calude, Andreea. 2008. Demonstrative clefts and double cleft constructions in spontaneous spoken English. Studia Linguistica 62:78-118.

Caponigro, Ivano and Kathryn Davidson. 2011. Ask, and tell as well: clausal question-answer Pairs in ASL. Natural Language Semantics 19:323-371.

Declerck, Renaat. 1988. Studies on copular sentences, clefts and pseudo-clefts. Walter de Gruyter.

den Dikken, Marcel. 2005. Specificational copular sentences and pseudoclefts. The Blackwell companion to syntax, eds. Martin Everaert, Henk Van Riemsdijk, Rob Goedemans, and Bart Hollebrandse, 292-409. Wiley-Blackwell.

den Dikken, Marcel, André Meinunger, and Chris Wilder. 2000. Pseudoclefts and ellipsis. Studia Linguistica 54:41-89.

Faraci, Robert. 1971. On the deep question of pseudo-clefts. English Linguistics 6:48-85.

Higgins, Francis. 1979. The pseudo-cleft construction in English. New York: Garland.

Lambrecht, Knud. 2001. A framework for the analysis of cleft constructions. Linguistics 39:463-516.

Lambrecht, Knud and Sebastian Ross-Hagebaum. 2006. Apo koinou and intrusion: Toward a syntactic-pragmatic typology of amalgam constructions in spoken English. Proceedings of the 4th workshop on discourse structure. University of Texas, Austin.

Mair, Christian. 2013. Writing the corpus-based history of spoken English: The elusive past of a cleft construction. Language and Computers 77:11-29.

McConvell, Patrick. 2004. Catastrophic change in current English: emergent double-be's and Free-be's. Talk given at the CRLC Seminar at the Australian National University.

O'Neill, Teresa. 2012. Coordination in English copular amalgams. Qualifying Paper, CUNY Graduate Center. Available here.

Ross, John Robert. 1972. Act. Semantics of Natural Language, eds. Donald Davidson and Harman, Gilbert, 70-126. Reidel Dordrecht.

Ross, John Robert. 2000. The frozenness of pseudoclefts--towards an inequality-based syntax. Manuscript, University of North Texas.

Ross-Hagebaum, Sebastian. 2004. The that's X is Y construction as an information-structure amalgam. Paper presented at the 30th meeting of the Berkley Linguistics Society, 403-414.

Schlenker, Philippe. 2003. Clausal equations (a note on the connectivity problem). Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 21:157-214.

Zimmer, Ben. 2012. Obama's "is is". Language Log post, October 23, 2012. Available here.

Be done my homework (Aspectual transitive be-perfect)

When I don't have hockey and I'm done my homework, I go there and skate.

(Yerastov 2010:117)

Fruehwald, Josef and Neil Myler. 2013. “I’m done my homework.” – Case assignment in a stative passive. Paper presented at the 37th Penn Linguistics Colloquium. Handout available here.

Fruehwald, Josef and Neil Myler. 2015. I’m done my homework—Case assignment in a stative passive. Linguistic Variation 15 (2), 141–168.

Hinnell, Jennifer. 2012. A construction analysis of [be done X] in Canadian English. M.A. Thesis, Simon Fraser University.

Yerastov, Yuri. 2008. I am done dinner: A case of lexicalization. In Susie Jones [ed.] Proceedings of the 2008 Annual Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association.

Yerastov, Yuri. 2010. Done, finished, and started as reflexes of the Scottish transitive be perfect in North America: their synchrony, diachrony, and current marginalisation. In Millar, Robert McColl [ed.] Marginal Dialects: Scotland, Ireland and Beyond. Aberdeen: Forum for Research on the Languages of Scotland and Ireland, 19-52.

Yerastov, Yuri. 2010. I am done dinner: When synchrony meets diachrony. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Calgary.

Yerastov, Yuri 2010. Lexicalization of the transitive be perfect in Scots influenced dialects in North America. In Patricia Sutcliffe [ed.] Proceedings of LACUS XXXVI: Mechanisms of Linguistic Behavior.

Yerastov, Yuri. 2012. Transitive be perfect in Canadian English: An experimental study. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 57 (3), 427–457.

Yerastov, Yuri. Submitted. Reflexes of transitive be perfect in Canada and the US: A comparative corpus study.

Double Comparatives

Every time you ask me not to hum, I’ll hum more louder.

(Corver 2005)

Bauer, Laurie. 2007. Some Grammatical Features of New Zealand English. New Zealand English Journal 21: 1–25.

Clarke, Sandra. 2004. Newfoundland English: Morphology and syntax. In A Handbook of Varieties of English Vol. II: Morphology and Syntax, edited by Bernd Kortmann and Clive Upton, 303-318. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Corver, Norbert. 2005. Double comparatives and the comparative criterion. Recherches linguistiques de Vincennes 34: 165–190.

González-Díaz, Victorina. 2007. On the nature and distribution of English double periphrastic comparison. The Review of English Studies 57 (232): 623–664.

Kennedy, Christopher and Louise McNally. 2005. The syntax and semantics of multiple degree modification in English. In António Branco, Francisco Costa and Manfred Sailer [eds.] The 12th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar: Conference Notes, 63-68.

Montgomery, Michael B. 2008. Appalachian English: Morphology and syntax. In A Handbook of Varieties of English Vol. II: Morphology and Syntax, edited by Bernd Kortmann and Clive Upton, 428–467. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Nevins, Andrew. 2009. Mo’ better morphotactics: doubling the output of syntax. Talk presented at Morphology of the World’s Languages, Leipzig, and at the CrISP Colloquium, UC Santa Cruz.

Nevins, Andrew. 2012. Haplological dissimilation at distinct stages of exponence. In The Morphology and Phonology of Exponence, edited by Jochen Trommer, 84–116. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Radford, Andrew. 1977. Counter-filtering Rules. York Papers in Linguistics 7: 7–45.

Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt and Bernd Kortmann. 2009. The morphosyntax of varieties of English worldwide: A quantitative perspective. Lingua 119 (11): 1643–1663.

Wlodarczyk, Matylda. 2007. “More strenger and mightier”: Some Remarks on Double Comparison in Middle English. Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 43: 195–216.

Wolfram, Walt and Natalie Schilling-Estes. 1998. American English. Dialects and Variation. London: Blackwell.

Double IS

The problem is is that the Social Security system is effectively headed for bankruptcy.

(Curzan 2012)

Andersen, Gisle. 2002. Corpora and the Double Copula. In Leiv Egil Breivik and Angela Hasselgren [eds.] From the COLT’s mouth ... and others: Language Corpora Studies, in Honor of Anna-Brita Strenstrom, 43-58. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Bolinger, Dwight. 1987. The Remarkable Double IS. English Today 9, 39-40.

Brenier, Jason, and Laura Michaelis. 2005. Optimization via Syntactic Amalgam: Syntax- Prosody Mismatch and Copula Doubling. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 1 (1), 45-88.

Calude, A. 2008. Demonstrative clefts and double cleft constructions in spoken English. Studia Linguistica 62, 78–118.

Coppock, Elizabeth & Laura Staum. 2004. Origin of the English Double-is Construction. Unpublished Manuscript, Stanford University.

Coppock, Elizabeth, Laura Staum, Jason Brenier, and Laura Michaelis. 2006. ISIS: It’s not a Disfluency, but How do We Know That? Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society, Berkeley, CA. Available here.

Curzan, Anne. 2012. Revisiting the Reduplicative Copula with Corpus-based Evidence. In Terttu Nevalainen and Elizabeth Closs Traugott [eds.] The Oxford Handbook of the History of English, Oxford Handbooks Online.

Heycock, Caroline and Anthony Kroch. 1999. Pseudocleft connectedness: Implications for the LF interface level. Linguistic Inquiry 30 (3), 365–397.

Massam, Diane. 1999. Thing is constructions: the thing is, is what’s the right analysis? English Language and Linguistics 3(2), 335-352.

McConvell, Patrick. 1988. To be or double be? Current changes in the English copula. Australian Journal of Linguistics 8, 287-305.

O'Neill, Teresa. 2014. Demystifying double-is. Talk handout, CUNY Graduate Center. Available here.

Ross-Hagebaum, Sebastian. 2005. “And that’s my big area of interest in linguistics is discourse” - The forms and functions of the English that’s X is Y-construction. BLS 30, 403-414.

Shapiro, Michael, and Michael C. Haley. 2002. ‘The Reduplicative Copula is is, American Speech 77 (3), 305-312.

Tuggy, David. 1995. The Thing Is Is That People Talk That Way. The Question Is Is Why? In Eugene H. Casad [ed.] Cognitive Linguistics in the Redwoods: The Expansion of a New Paradigm in Linguistics, 713-752. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Zwicky, Arnold. 2006. Extris, extris. NWAV Abstract, Stanford University, July 2006. Available here.

Zwicky, A. M. 2007: Extris, extris. Paper presented at Stanford University, 16 March 2007. Available here.

Drama SO

Jamie is SO going to kiss you!

(Irwin 2011)

Adams, Michael. 2003. Slayer Slang: A Buffy the Vampire Slayer Lexicon. Oxford University Press.

Huddleston, Rodney D., and Geoffrey K. Pullum. 2002. The Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Irwin, Patricia. 2011. Totally high: Drama SO and the distribution of a speaker-oriented adverb. Paper delivered at Yale University, Syntax Colloquium, October 14, 2011.

Irwin, Patricia. To appear. SO [totally] speaker-oriented: An analysis of “Drama SO”. In Raffaella Zanuttini and Laurence R. Horn [eds.] Micro-Syntactic Variation in North American English. Oxford University Press.

Potts, Christopher. 2004. Lexicalized intonational meaning. In UMOP 30: Papers on Prosody, ed. Shigeto Kawahara, 129-146. Amherst, MA: GLSA.

“So”. Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series. December, 2005. OED Online. Oxford University Press. 17 November 2011 <http://www.oed.com/>

Zwicky, Arnold. 2006. So in style at the NYT. Language Log. Retrieved from: http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/002994.html.

Expletive they

They is something bad wrong with her.

(Montgomery and Hall 2004:lxii)

Hackenberg, Robert G. 1973. Appalachian English: A Sociolinguistic Study. Doctoral Dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

Montgomery, Michael and Joseph S. Hall. 2004. Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Montgomery, Michael. 2006. Notes on the development of existential they. American Speech 81:132–145.

Tortora, Christina. 2006. The case of Appalachian expletive they. American Speech 81:266–296.

Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1976. Appalachian Speech. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Zanuttini, Raffaella and Judy B. Bernstein. To appear. Transitive expletives in Appalachian English. In Raffaella Zanuttini and Laurence R. Horn [eds.] Micro-Syntactic Variation in North American English. Oxford University Press.

Future Pluperfect

John will have had run the race by the time we arrive.

(Chaski 1995)

Chaski, Carole E. 1995. The Future Pluperfect: Double Tenses in American English Auxiliaries. American Speech 70: 3-20.

Inversion in Embedded Questions

And he told them who was it.

(Fought 2002:98)

Clarke, Sandra. 2004. Newfoundland English: Morphology and syntax. In A Handbook of Varieties of English Vol. II: Morphology and Syntax, edited by Bernd Kortmann and Clive Upton, 303-318. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter. (Page 315)

Fought, Carmen. 2003. Chicano English in Context. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. (Page 98)

Green, Lisa. 2002. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press. (Pages 87-89)

Henry, Alison. 1995. Belfast English and Standard English: Dialect Variation and Parameter Setting. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lakoff, George. 1971. On generative semantics. In D. Steinberg and L. Jakobovits. [eds.] Semantics: An Interdisciplinary Reader, 232-296. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

McCloskey, James 1992, Adjunction, selection and embedded verb second. Manuscript, Santa Cruz: University of California.

Ross, John Robert. 1975. Where to do things with words. In Peter Cole and Jerry L. Morgan [eds.] Speech Acts, 233-256. New York: Academic Press.

Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1976. Appalachian Speech. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics. (Page 129)

Wolfram, Walt and Natalie Schilling-Estes. 2006. American English. [2nd Edition] Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. (Page 384)

Liketa

I liketa had a heart attack.

(Feagin 1979)

Feagin, Crawford. 1979. Variation and Change in Alabama English: A Sociolinguistic Study of the White Community. Washington: Georgetown University Press.

Johnson, Greg. 2013. Liketa is not Almost. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 19 (1), 79-85. (Article 10) Available here.

Kytö, Merja and Suzanne Romaine. 2005. “We had like to have been killed by thunder & lightning”: The semantic and pragmatic history of a construction that like to disappeared. Journal of Historical Pragmatics 6 (1), 1-35.

Montgomery, Michael B. and Joseph S. Hall. 2004. Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press.

Nagle, Stephen J., and Sara L. Sanders. 2003. English in the Southern United States. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Wolfram, Walt, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. 1998. American English: Dialects and Variation. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Long-distance Reflexives

Johni said that my behavior harmed himselfi.

(Loss 2011c)

Linn, Michael. 1988. The Origin and Development of the Iron Range Dialect in Northern Minnesota. Studia Posnaniensia 21, 75-87.

Loss, Sara. 2011a. Reflexives and blocking effects in Iron Range English. Extended Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America. Available here.

Loss, Sara. 2011b. The use of magnitude estimation to understand the behavior of reflexive pronouns. In Dina Bailey and Victoria Teliga [eds.] Proceedings of the 39th Western Conference On Linguistics, 181-191. Fresno, CA: University of California.

Loss, Sarah. 2011c. Iron Range English long-distance reflexives. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Underwood, Gary N. 1981. The Dialect of the Mesabi Iron Range (Vol. 67). PADS. 1-105.

Multiple modals

I might just couldn't see it.

(Di Paolo 1989)

Battistella, Edwin. 1991. The treatment of negation in double modal constructions. Linguistic Analysis 21:49–65.

Battistella, Edwin. 1995. The syntax of double modal constructions. Linguistica Atlantica 17:19–44.

Boertien, Harmon S. 1979. The double modal construction in Texas. Texas Linguistic Forum13:14–33.

Boertien, Harmon S. 1986. Constituent structure of double modals. In Language variety in the South: Perspectives in Black and White, ed. Michael Montgomery and Guy Bailey, 294–318. University of Alabama Press.

Boertien, Harmon S., and Sally Said. 1980. Syntactic variation in double modal dialects.Journal of the Linguistic Association of the Southwest 3:210–22.

Brandstetter, Corinne. 2003. A study in syntactic variation: Double modal constructions. Ms., Georgetown University.

Butters, Ronald R. 1973. Acceptability judgements for double modals in Southern dialects. In New ways of analyzing variation in English, ed. Charles-James N. Bailey and Roger W. Shuy, 276–286. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Coleman, Willian. 1975. Multiple modals in Southern States English. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Indiana.

Dickey, Michael, Elissa Burg, Rachel Goldsborough, Mary Gurry, Jennifer Highsmith, and Kimberly Tester. 2000. A Midwestern double modal. In Proceedings of the thirty sixth regional meeting, ed. Arika Okrent and John Boyle, 207–221. Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

di Paolo, Marianna, Charles McClenon, and Kenneth Ranson. 1979. A survey of double modals in Texas. Texas Linguistic Forum 13:40–49.

di Paolo, Marianna. 1986. A study of double modals in Texas English. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin.

di Paolo, Marianna. 1989. Double modals as single lexical items. American Speech 64:195–224.

Feagin, Crawford. 1979. Variation and change in Alabama English: A sociolinguistic study of the white community. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. See especially pp. 151-185.

Fennell, Barbara. 1993. Evidence for British sources of double modal constructions in Southern American English. American Speech 68:430–437.

Hasty, J. Daniel. 2011. We might should oughta take a second look at this: A syntactic re-analysis of double modals in Southern United States English. Ms., Michigan State University.

Labov, William, Paul Cohen, Clarence Robins, and John Lewis. 1968. A study of the nonstandard English of Negro and Puerto Rican speakers in New York City. Final Report, Cooperative Project No. 3288, United States Office of Education.

Mishoe, Margaret, and Michael B. Montgomery. 1994. The pragmatics of multiple modal variation in North and South Carolina. American Speech 69:3–29.

Montgomery, Michael B., and Stephen J. Nagle. 1993. Double modals in Scotland and the Southern United States: Transatlantic inheritance or independent development. Folia Linguistica Historica 14:91–107.

Nagle, Stephen J. 1994. The English double modal conspirancy. Diachronica 11:199–212.

Pampell, John R. 1975. More on double modals. Texas Linguistic Forum 2:110– 21.

Pederson, Lee, Susan Leas McDaniel, Guy Bailey, and Marvin Bassett. 1986-92. Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

Whitley, M. Stanley. 1975. Dialectal syntax: plurals and modals in Southern American. Linguistics 16:89–108.

Needs washed

Its origins need traced.

(Stabley 1959)

Bloomquist, Jennifer. 2009. Dialect differences in central Pennsylvania: Regional dialect use and adaptation by African Americans in the lower Susquehanna Valley. American Speech 84 (1), 27-47. (Page 32)

Brassil, Dan. 2009. A middle voice in Appalachian English. Paper presented at LSA Annual Meeting.

Edelstein, Elspeth. To appear. This syntax needs studied. In Raffaella Zanuttini and Laurence R. Horn [eds.] Micro-Syntactic Variation in North American English. Oxford University Press.

Kaschak, Michael P. and Arthur M. Glenberg. 2004. This construction needs learned. Journal of Experimental Psychology 133 (3), 450–467.

Kaschak, Michael P. 2006. What this construction needs is generalized. Memory and Cognition 34 (2), 368–379.

Murray, Thomas E. 1987. Appalachia on the Move: need + [verb] + -ed in Ohio. In Thomas E. Murray [ed.] Aspects of American English, 51-63. Reynoldsburg, OH: Advocate.

Murray, Thomas E. 1990. Appalachian/Ozarkian English on the Plains. Kansas Quarterly 22 (4): 45-74.

Murray, Thomas E., and Beth Lee Simon Timothy C. Frazer. 1996. Need + past participle in American English. American Speech 71:255–271.

Murray, Thomas E., and Beth Lee Simon. 1999. Want + past participle in American English. American Speech 74:140–164.

Murray, Thomas E., and Beth Lee Simon. 2002. At the intersection of regional and social dialects: The case of like + past participle in American English. American Speech 77:32–69.

Stabley, Rhodes R., and A. L. H. 1959. ‘Needs painted’ etc., in Western Pennsylvania. American Speech 34:69–70.

Tenny, Carol. 1998. Psych verbs and verbal passives in Pittsburghese. Linguistics 36:591–597.

Ulrey, Kathleen S. 2009. Dinner needs cooked, groceries need bought, diapers needed changed, kids need bathed: Tracking the progress of need + past participle across the United States. Master’s thesis, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana.

Whitman, Neal. 2010. Special Needs. Literal-Minded. Available here.

Negative concord

Nothing don't come to a sleeper but a dream.

(Green 2002)

Feagin, Crawford. 1979. Variation and change in Alabama English: A sociolinguistic study of the white community. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Foreman, John. 1999. Syntax of negative inversion in non-standard English. In Proceedings of WCCFL 17, eds. Kimary Shahin, Susan Blake, and Eun-Sook Kim. Stanford, CA: CSLI. 

Green, Lisa. 2002. African American English: A linguistic introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Henry, A., R. MacLaren, J. Wilson, and C. Finlay. 1997. The acquisition of negative concord in non-standard English. In Proceedings of the 21st Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, eds. Elizabeth Hughes, Mary Hughes, and Annabel Greenhill, volume 1, 269-280. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Labov, William. 1972. Negative attraction and negative concord in English grammar. Language48:773–818.

Labov, William, Paul Cohen, Clarence Robins, and John Lewis. 1968. A study of the nonstandard English of Negro and Puerto Rican speakers in New York City. Final Report, Cooperative Project No. 3288, United States Office of Education.

Smith, Jennifer. 2001. Negative concord in the Old and New World: Evidence from Scotland.Language Variation and Change 13:109-134.

White-Sustaita, Jessica. 2010. Reconsidering the syntax of non-canonical negative inversion.English Language and Linguistics 14:429–455.

Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1976. Appalachian speech. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Negative inversion

Can't nobody stop it.

(Labov et al. 1968)

Feagin, Crawford. 1979. Variation and Change in Alabama English: A Sociolinguistic Study of the White Community. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Foreman, John. 1999. Syntax of negative inversion in non-standard English. In Kimary Shahin, Susan Blake, and Eun-Sook Kim [eds.] Proceedings of the 17th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics. Stanford, CA: CSLI.

Green, Lisa. 2002. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Green, Lisa. 2011a. Force, focus and negation in African American English. Paper presented at LSA Annual Meeting.

Green, Lisa. 2011b. Language and the African American Child. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Green, Lisa. To appear. Force, Focus, and Negation in African American English. In Raffaella Zanuttini and Laurence R. Horn [eds.] Micro-Syntactic Variation in North American English. Oxford University Press.

Labov, William. 1972. Negative attraction and negative concord in English grammar. Language 48:773–818.

Labov, William, Paul Cohen, Clarence Robins, and John Lewis. 1968. A study of the nonstandard English of Negro and Puerto Rican speakers in New York City. Final Report, Cooperative Project No. 3288, United States Office of Education.

Martin, Stefan E. 1992. Topics in the Syntax of Nonstandard English. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.

Parrott, Jeffrey K. 2000. Negative inversion in African American Vernacular English: A case of optional movement? In Nancy Mae Antrim, Grant Goodall, Martha Schulte-Nafeh, and Vida Samiian [eds.] Proceedings of the 28th Western Conference on Linguistics (WECOL), 414–427. Department of Linguistics, Fresno: California State University.

Sells, Peter, John Rickford, and Thomas Wasow. 1996. An Optimality Theoretic approach to variation in negative inversion in AAVE. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 14:591–627.

White-Sustaíta, Jessica. 2010. Reconsidering the syntax of non-canonical negative inversion. English Language and Linguistics 14:429–455.

Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1976. Appalachian Speech. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Personal datives

She wanted her some liver pudding.

(Wolfram and Christian 1976)

Armstrong, Grant, and Corinne Hutchinson. 2008. The personal dative construction in Appalachian English. Ms., Georgetown University.

Christian, Donna. 1991. The personal dative in Appalachian English. In P. Trudgill and J.K. Chambers [eds.] Dialects of English, 11–19. London: Longman.

Conroy, Anastasia. 2007. The personal dative in Appalachian English as a reflexive pronoun. In Akira Omaki, Ivan Ortega-Santos, Jon Sprouse, and Matthew Wagers [eds.] University of Maryland Working Papers in Linguistics, volume 16, 63–88.

Green, Georgia. 1974. Semantics and Syntactic Regularity. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. (p.190ff.)

Haddad, Youssef A. 2010. Why personal datives are not anaphors. Manuscript, University of Florida.

Haddad, Youssef A. 2011. The syntax of Southern American English personal datives: An anti-locality account. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 56 (3), 403-412.

Horn, Laurence R. 2008. “I love me some him”: the landscape of non-argument datives. In Olivier Bonami and Patricia Cabredo Hofherr [eds.] Empirical issues in syntax and semantics 7.

Horn, Laurence R. 2013. I love me some datives: Expressive meaning, free datives, and F-implicature. In D. Gutzmann and H.-M. Gärtner (eds.), Beyond Expressives: Explorations in Use-Conditional Meaning, 153-201. Leiden: Brill.

Hutchinson, Corinne and Grant Armstrong. 2014. The syntax and semantics of personal datives in Appalachian English. In Raffaella Zanuttini and Laurence R. Horn [eds.] Micro-Syntactic Variation in North American English, 178-214. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rotschy McLachlan, Leila. 2011. I love me some Jiminy Glick: The semantic contribution of ‘some’ in personal dative constructions. Extended Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America. Available here.

Sroda, Mary, and Margaret Mishoe. 1995. "I jus like to look at me some goats": Dialectal pronominals in Southern English. Handout of paper presented at NWAV 24 conference.

Webelhuth, Gert, and Clare J. Dannenberg. 2006. Southern American English personal datives: The theoretical signicance of dialectal variation. American Speech 81:31-55.

Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1976. Appalachian speech. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Positive anymore

You stay in your office too late anymore.

(Krumpelmann 1939:156)

Carter, Charles W. Jr. 1932. Any more again. American Speech 7:235–36.

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Ferguson, D. W. 1932. Any moreAmerican Speech 7:233–34.

Haycock, Allan. 2001. Who’s positive anymore? Ms., University of Toronto.

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Horn, Laurence R. 1970. Ain’t it hard (anymore). In Papers from the 6th Regional Meeting, 318–327. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

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Labov, William. 1973. Where do grammars stop? In Sociolinguistics: Current trends and prospects (23rd annual Georgetown Round Table meeting on linguistics). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. See especially pp. 65-76.

Labov, William. 1991. The boundaries of a grammar: inter-dialectal reactions to positive anymore. In Dialects of English: studies in grammatical variation, ed. P. Trudgill and J. Chambers, 273–288. Longman.

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Malone, Kemp. 1931. Any more in the affirmative. American Speech 6:460.

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Murray, Thomas E. 1993. Positive anymore in the Midwest. In Heartland English: Variation and transition in the American Midwest, 173–186. University of Alabama Press.

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Punctual whenever

Whenever I lost my first tooth, I nearly swallowed it.

(Benson 2012:226)

Benson, Erica J. 2012. Need + Prepositional Adverb in the Midland: Another Feature Needs In. Journal of English Linguistics 40 (3), 224–255. (Page 226)

Montgomery, Michael and John M. Kirk. 2001. ‘My Mother, Whenever She Passed Away, She Had Pneumonia’: The History and Functions of whenever. Journal of English Linguistics 29: 234–249.

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So don't I (So AUXn't NP/DP (SAND))

He plays guitar, but so don't I.

(Wood 2008)

Freeman, Jason. 2004. Syntactic analysis of the “So Don’t I” construction. Cranberry Linguistics 2: University of Connecticut Working Papers in Linguistics 12:25–38.

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Horn, Laurence R. 2010. Multiple negation in English and other languages. In Laurence R. Horn [ed.] The Expression of Negation, 111-148. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.

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Split Subjects

We don't nobody know how long we have.

(Montgomery and Hall 2004)

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Henry, Alison, and Siobhan Cottell. 2007. A new approach to transitive expletives: evidence from Belfast English. English Language and Linguistics 11 (2), 279-299.

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Stressed BIN

I BIN started my paper Ma, so quit asking me.

(Harris 2013)

Dayton, Elizabeth. 1996. Grammatical Categories of the Verb in African American Vernacular English. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

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Taller than what Bill is

John is more courageous than what Bill is.

(Chomsky 1977:123)

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Verbal agreement

Those boys is plumb foolish.

(Tortora and Den Dikken 2010:1092)

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Rupp, Laura. 2005. Constraints on nonstandard -s in expletive there sentences: a generative-variationist perspective. English Language and Linguistics 9:225–288.

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Verbal rather

I wouldn’t tell him, but I would have rathered slept in a bed because, in all honesty, his lap was not very comfortable.

(Wood 2013:59)

Denison, David and Alison Cort. 2010. Better as a verb. In Kristin Davidse, Lieven Vandelanotte and Hubert Cuyckens [eds.], Subjectification, intersubjectification and grammaticalization, 349–383. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter Mouton.

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Wood, Jim. 2013. Parasitic participles in the syntax of verbal rather. Lingua 137, 59–87.